Specialist in wilde flora en fauna


In winkelwagen plaatsen
Titel The Sand Lizard - Between light and shadow, Beiheft 7 der Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie
AuteursIna Blanke & Helen Fearnley
Prijs € 24,00
Jaar van uitgifte2015 october
192 pagina′s

The lives of sand lizards are characterised by light and shadow. Sand lizards are particular and selective creatures; living close to one another and favouring structurally diverse areas of vegetation scattered with patches of open ground in which to lay their eggs. This is their ideal habitat, their home; where their white and dark markings cleverly disguise their delicate body contours against dappled vegetation shadows that provide the perfect camouflage. The sand lizard is a strictly protected species, as listed in the Habitats Directive of the European Union. In countries such as Great Britain where the species is at the geographic limits of its large range, the lizards are endangered and confined to locations that contain their ideal habitat. In the central areas of their Eurasian range, sand lizards are widespread and found in a variety of habitats across many different landscapes. There are marked differences within and between populations in social behaviour, activity patterns and use of space. These differences appear to the researcher, to be as varied as the dorsal markings of sand lizard themselves. This book is a consolidation of sand lizard literature which presents our current knowledge and understanding of the species. It is aimed at the enthusiast, those working in the ecological sector and in site management. The chapters are wide-ranging and review the general appearance, systematics and distribution of the sand lizard across its entire range then examine their diet, behaviour, threats, habitat and population ecology. The reader is taken on a seasonal journey from the emergence of the first lizard in spring to the retreat of juveniles into hibernation. This book also contains valuable practical conservation advice and provides examples of best practice when working to ensure the longevity of our sand lizard populations at a time when development pressure is fierce. Contents 1 Introduction 2 Description and systematics 2.1 Nomenclature 2.2 Colouration, pattern and scalation 2.3 Morphometric data 2.4 Systematics and phylogeny 3 Distribution 3.1 General distribution 3.2 Distribution in Eurasia 3.3 Distribution in Great Britain 4 The habitats 4.1 General habitat requirements 4.2 Basking sites 4.3 Shelters and retreats 4.4 Egg-laying sites and winter quarters 4.5 Vegetation and habitat types 5 Lizards as predators and prey 5.1 Diet of sand lizards 5.1.1 Prey acquisition and hunting methods 5.1.2 Prey spectrum and size 5.1.3 Food quantity 5.1.4 Water absorption 5.2 Adversities: predators, parasites and injuries 5.2.1 The anti-predatory strategy of the sand lizard 5.2.2 Autotomy 5.2.3 Predators 5.2.4 Miscellaneous injuries 5.2.5 Parasite infestations 6 Activity patterns and phenology 6.1 Thermoregulation 6.2 Detectability and activity 6.3 Daily activity 6.4 Phenology 6.5 Hibernation 7 Reproduction 7.1 The mating period 7.1.1 Period of matings 7.1.2 Male-male interactions 7.1.3 Mating behaviour 7.2 Sexual maturity and reproductive cost 7.2.1 Sexual maturity and participation in the reproduction 7.2.2 Reproductive cost and clutch sizes 7.3 From oviposition to hatching 7.3.1 Timing of oviposition 7.3.2 Oviposition and parental care 7.3.3 Location and structure of oviposition sites 7.3.4 Incubation and hatching 8 Space utilisation 8.1 Strategies of space utilisation 8.2 Home ranges of sand lizards 8.3 Migration and dispersal potential 9 The populations 9.1 Age groups and growth rates 9.2 Life expectancy and mortality rates 9.3 Population structure 9.4 Population sizes and densities 9.5 Dispersal 9.6 Minimum habitat areas 10 Threats 10.1 Status and Red Lists 10.2 Causes of decline 10.2.1 Loss of habitats 10.2.2 Isolation of habitats and inbreeding 10.2.3 Manipulation of populations 10.2.4 Management and planning 10.2.5 Acoustic barriers 11 Conservation 11.1 General conservation and legislative protection 11.2 The sand lizard as an indicator and umbrella species 11.3 Habitat management 11.4 Creation, enhancement and connection of habitats 11.5 Mitigation measures 11.5.1 Legal requirements and avoiding harm in project planning 11.5.2 Conservation of retained habitats with animals for recolonisation 11.5.3 Mitigation translocations 11.6 Captive breeding and conservation translocation 12 References